воскресенье, 27 февраля 2011 г.

Radziwill’s artillery from Slutck, 1707

Radziwill's coat of arms
granted in 1547
Slutck in Novogrodek palatinate in Lithuania was a “capital” of the Radziwill’s lands. In 1707 Russians evacuated all major strongholds in Lithuania to prevent it taking by Swedes. In Slutck they took 20 cannons:
-        4-pdr decorated by Radziwill’s title under mitre and a hawk
-        4-pdr decorated by Lithuanian coat of arms
-        8-pdr, made in 1613, decorated by Brandenburg’s coat of arms & Jan-Kazimir’s title
-        10-pdr, decorated by a whale
-        10-pdr, decorated by an old man 
-        2 10-pdr canons made in 1573 in Brandenburg
-        3 12-pdr canons made in 1635 with Lithuanian coat of arms & King Wladislaw’s title
-        12-pdr decorated by Adam & Eve
-        2 12-pdr canons with Brandenburg coat of arms & Georg-Wilhelm’ title, one with a drummer, the other with a flautist
-        12-pdr without decorations
-        12-pdr with a mist
-        15-pdr with a drummer
-        24-pdr, made in 1637, with Krzysztof Radziwill’s coat of arms & title & 2 eagles
-        27-pdr, made in 1637, with Jan Radziwill’s coat of arms & title
-        3-pdr with Lithuanian arms & letters C.D.S.
-        Howitzer made in 1563 with King Zigmund-August coat of arms & title

пятница, 25 февраля 2011 г.

среда, 23 февраля 2011 г.

Russian Guards colours of 1695, 1700 & 1701

(Below is a summary about Guards colours 1695-1701 from my article in “Zeughaus” magazine: Великанов В.С. Знамена русской армии в Нарвском походе в 1700 г.// «Старый Цейхгауз», № 37 (5/2010), СС. 2-10)

# 1. "Parade" regimental colour
of 1695 & 1700 patterns

The most common version (Viskovatov, Nikolaev, etc.) about Guard colours is that they had 3 patterns of colours: 1695, 1700 & 1701. First colours Preobrazenskiy & Semenovskiy regiments got in 1695. Both received one white regimental colour (carried by the 1st company) and colored ones for the remaining companies. Regimental colour was decorated with double-headed state eagle with provincial arms on its breast (see ill 1). Company colours were with Saturn & Neptun (see ill. 2). Preobrazenskiy regiment had black colours, Semenovskiy – light-blue. Colours of 1700 were the same as 1695 pattern but with ribbon “Anno Domini 1700”. In 1701 Guards received new colours with palm branches, arm with sword coming out of a cloud, St. Andrew’s cross & cross in the upper right corner (ill. 6). This version is incorrect. 
# 2. "Parade" company colour of 1700.
Preobrazenskiy regiment
(Hermitage, S. Peterburg)
Azanchevskiy wrote that in 1695 Guards received 2 sets of colours, “parade” & “field”. “Parade” set was similar to the described by Viskovatov. “Field” set was decorated with a sword & ribbon with motto «Симъ знакомъ побъждаю» (Win by this sign). The same practice of 2 sets of colours was in 1700 in new-raised foot regiments. 
# 3. Preobrazenskiy reg-t, 5th coy
1700 pattern, "field" set
(Trophy collection, AM, Stockholm)
Trophy collection of Army Museum in Stockholm had 10 Guards colours taken at Narva on 20 Nov 1700. First they were mentioned in “True relation about arriving in Stokholm of Russian captives & trophies” published in May 1701. 7 of them are company colors of Preobrazenskiy (ill. 3) & regimental (ill. 4) & 2 company (ill. 5) colours of Semenovskiy regiment. They are slightly differed from colours described by Russian authors as 1701 pattern.
So, in reality Guards (Preobrazenskiy & Semenovskiy regiments) had 2 patterns of colours, 1695 & 1700. Each was of 2 sets, “parade” & “field”. “Parade” regimental colour of 1700 was white with State Eagle (ill. 1). “Parade” company colours were with Saturn & Neptun & ribbon “Anno Domini 1700” (see ill. 2). This set stayed in 1700 in Moscow, Guards marched on campaign with “field” set. “Field” colours are now in Trophy collection in Stockholm. In 1701 new colours were produced to replace Narva losses. These colours slightly differed from “field” colours of 1700 pattern in decorations (“herbs” added, etc.)
# 4. Regimental colour of Semenovskiy reg-t
1700 pattern, "field" set
(Trophy collection, AM, Stockholm)
 
Знамена гвардейских полков 1695, 1700 и 1701 годов (к вопросу о типологии).
# 5. Semenovskiy reg-t, 3rd coy
1700 pattern, "field" set
(Trophy collection, AM, Stockholm)
(Текст ниже – немного переработанный кусок про гвардейские знамена из моей статьи в «Цейхгаузе»: Великанов В.С. Знамена русской армии в Нарвском походе в 1700 г.// «Старый Цейхгауз», № 37 (5/2010), СС. 2-10)

# 6. Preobrazenskiy reg-t, 3rd coy
1701 production
(Viskovatov)

До настоящего момента в вопросе образцов знамен преображенцев и семеновцев на начальном периоде Великой Северной войны нет ясности. Согласно Висковатову и Николаеву в период 1695-1701 преображенцы и семеновцы имели 3 образца знамен: 1695, 1700 и 1701. В 1695 году каждый из полков (точнее – на тот момент 1-я и 2-я «тысячи» 3-го выборного московского солдатского полка) получил одно белое «полковое» знамя (в 1-й, полковничьей роте) и цветные «ротные» знамена (в остальных ротах). Полковые знамена были из белой тафты с двуглавым коричневым орлом под тремя коронами. В когтях орла обна­женный меч с надписью: «Pax asculata sunt Psalma 84»; на груди - черный круг с 26 гербами княжеств и городов. Вдоль края, прилегавшего к древку, - писан­ное серебром украшение из лавровых ветвей (см. Илл. 1). Ротные знамена (черные – у преображенцев, голубые – у семеновцев) были по краям украшены ветвями и листьями голубого цвета, а на середине, под желтой царской короной, плывущая по воде лодка, в которой Сатурн поучает юношу управлять веслом. Также на знамени изображены пылающий город и строящиеся корабли; над ними облака, под которыми обна­женный меч. Напротив пылающего города изображен Марс, а напротив кораблей – Нептун. Между Марсом и Нептуном на белой ленте золотые слова: «Anno Domini 1695» (см. Илл. 2). Одно из таких знамен сохранилось в коллекции Государственного Эрмитажа.Anno Domini 1700». В 1701 гвардейцы получили новые знамена. Белое полковое знамя в центре имело две пальмовые ветви из камки голубого цвета. Между ветвями цепь Андрея Первозванного с крестом, над цепью корона; в кругу, образуемом цепью, написан золотом и красками двуглавый орел с тремя коронами; над главами орла - Всевидящее Око. В левом верхнем углу у дрека в серебряном облаке золотой четырехконечный крест; все же остальное пространство знамени занято голубым камчатным разводом, разцвеченным чернилами и обведенным золо­том. Ротные знамена (черные – у преображенцев, голубые – у семеновцев) также имели изображения двух желтых пальмовых ветвей, между которыми круг из цепи, внизу которой знак Св. Андрея Первозванного. В верхней части круга вшито голубое (лазоревое) облако с Всевидящим Оком, из облака выходит серебряная рука с палашом. Над кругом – большая золотая корона. В левом верхнем углу знамени, у древка, облако с четырехугольным серебряным крестом. Поле знамени вокруг ветвей и круга расшито синими травами и серебряными звездами по номеру роты. Навершия и у преображенских и у семеновских знамен – плоское позолоченное копейцо. Все знамена одевались на древко красным мешочком.

понедельник, 21 февраля 2011 г.

Taking of Suse, 6 March 1629 (II)

In addition to my post about taking the passes at Suse (http://rusmilhist.blogspot.com/2011/01/taking-of-suse-6-march-1629.html ) I found a painting with this event. Below are Louis XIII & Richelieu inspecting the attack of Suisses at the passes of Suse, 6 March 1629
 
Combat du Pas-de-Suze, 6 mars 1629.
(Versailles, châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon)

пятница, 18 февраля 2011 г.

Imperial army at Presburg, 6 May 1683 (Vienna campaign)

One more list of Imperial troops at Kittsee (Presburg) on May 6, 1683. It’s taken from Marburg Archive’s collection (http://www.digam.net/?dok=2558). This list differs from the list from Hollandse Mercurius (http://rusmilhist.blogspot.com/2011/02/imperial-army-at-kittsee-6-may-1683.html ).

Hollandse Mercurius
Marburg archive
Cuirassiers
10 regiments, 100 coys
11 regiments, 109 coys
Dragoons
4 regiments, 40 coys
2 regiments, 20 coys
Infantry
14 regiments, 120 coys
16 regiments, 123 coys
Croats
1 regiment, 4 coys
3 regiments, 24 coys
Hungarians
30 coys
-
Abbildung der kaiserlichen Truppen gegen die Türken in Feldlager bei Preßburg an der Donau, mit Auflistung der Offiziere der Kavallerie und der Infantrie, 6. Mai 1683
(Marburg Archive)

суббота, 12 февраля 2011 г.

четверг, 10 февраля 2011 г.

Russian dragoon colors 1700-12

This is a re-post from the closed site northernwars.com. It is updated summary of my article published in 2009 in the Russian Military Historical Magazine “Old Zeughaus” (Великанов В.С. Знамена русских драгунских полков 1700-09. // Совместный выпуск «Военно-исторического журнала» и журнала «Старый Цейхгауз», посвященный 300-летнему юбилею Полтавского сражения. М. 2009. с. 82-88). Drawings & plates are made by Dan Schorr. See also other posts labeled “Dragoons” & “Colors & Standards” on my blog.
The most widely held view concerning Russian dragoon colours from the Great Northern War is that they were of the same pattern as infantry colors (palm branches, arm with sword coming out of a cloud, St. Andrew’s cross) but smaller & with fringe. This was first written by Viskovatov and then repeated in the most of the subsequent works. On the other hand, available surviving colours and their descriptions refute this. Only one surviving colour meets the pattern described above. It is light-blue, with gold branches & white (light-blue?) cloud, gold fringe. The remaining colours are completely different.
The colours of the first dragoon regiments, Schnevetc (raised 1698, in 1706 – Kievskiy) and Gulitc (raised 1700, in 1706 - Moskovskiy), are known thanks to Swedish Trophy Collection and surviving documents in the Russian archives. Both received one white regimental colour (carried by the 1st company) and colored ones for the remaining companies. At Narva in 1700, the Shnevetc Dragoons lost their regimental and 5 company colours. The regimental colour was white, size 107x139 cm, with gold palm breaches, a brown Russian double-headed eagle with golden scepter and globe under three gold crowns, and a gold ribbon with motto “Симъ побъждаю враги своя” (Win over my enemies by this). Company colors were black, 100x137 cm, with gold palm branches and a straight cross, and a silver ribbon with the same motto “Симъ побъждаю враги своя” (Win over my enemies by this). The finial is flat with cutout Orthodox Cross. [Plate 1.1]
At Narva, the Gulitc Dragoons lost their regimental and 8 company colours (the Swedes reported the capture of the regimental and 6 company colours). The regimental colour was white, 105x133 cm, with a black eagle with 3 gold crowns above, gold scepter and globe. There was no ribbon with motto. Company colours were green, 98x140 cm, silver (in documents concerning their production – gold) palm branches, silver straight cross, silver ribbon with motto «Симъ знакомъ побъждаю» (Win by this sign), and 8 gold stars. [Plate 1.2] Colours in the Swedish Trophy Collection are without fringe and tassels but documents about their production mention them both in gold. The finial is a St. Andrew’s cross. The regiment was raised in 1700 and the finial was the same as for infantry colors of 1700 pattern. [Plate 1.3]

After the losses at Narva, the Gulitc (Moskovskiy) Dragoons were reduced from 12 companies to 10 and received 6 new colors to replace those lost. They were white (regimental) and green (company) with silver decorations but the details are unknown. By 1706, these were in bad shape and were turned in to the Kiev Arsenal. As replacements, the Moskovskiy Dragoons received 5 worn out green colours with silver decorations from Kievskiy (ex-Schnevetc) Dragoons. In 1707, the Moskovskiy Dragoons received 5 new colours (see details below). 

воскресенье, 6 февраля 2011 г.

Raising of the new dragoon regiments in 1701-02 (набор Золотой Палаты 1700-01)

After Campaign of 1700 Peter I decided to convert existing Reitar cavalry (gentry obliged to keep military service in return for land property & salary) into new Dragoon cavalry (personal obligation without any link with land fiefs). In December 1700 he announced revision of the gentry in 88 towns (regions) excluding Moscow, Novgorod, Pskov, Smolensk, Southern & Siberian towns. The Revision was done by department/ministry called “Zolotaya Palata” (Золотая Палата = Chamber of Gold). It was responsible for accounting of the state incomes. After it the raising of the new Dragoon regiments in 1701 also called “Nabor Zolotoy Palaty” (Набор Золотой Палаты = Chamber of Gold’s Recruitment). The Revision of 1700-01 gave 27 245 men, incl. 644 unfit for military service. They were divided into 2 ratings. 11 147 men were called on service right away in spring 1701. The rest stayed at homes but were obliged to join service at first call. In 1701-02 in Moscow were created 12 new Dragoon units:

Russian name
English name
# in Rabinovich
Name in 1706
1
Кропотов, Семен Иванович
Kropotov, Semen
543
Troitck
2
Мещерский, Никита Федорович
Mesherskiy, Nikita
544
Novgorod
3
Малина, Александр Александрович
De Mullin, Alexander
546
Sibir
4
Львов, Иван Иванович
Lvov, Ivan
550
Astrakhan
5
Жданов, Михаил Степанович
Zdanov, Mikhail
551
Vladimir
6
Шеншин, Данила Романович
Shenshin, Danila
549
Kazan
7
Новиков, Федор Аристович
Novikov, Fedor
548
Pskov
8
Полуэктов, Никита Иванович
Poluactov, Nikita
547
S-Peterburg
9
Рагозин, Афонасий Гаврилович
Ragozin, Afonasiy
545
Perm
10
Деолов, Петр Михайлович
De Olive, Peter
557
Tver
11
Малолетний полк
Juvenile or Youthful
552
-
12
Рота при Золотой Палате и Приказе Казанского Дворца
Chamber of Gold & Kazan Palace Dragoon coy
-
-

Notes:
·        Regiments (# 1-10) were of 10 coys, incl. 30-32 officers & about 1,000 other ranks.
·        Troops # 1-9 & # 11-12 were created in spring-summer 1701. De Olive’s regiment was created in spring 1702.
·        Regiments # 1-8 were sent in July-August 1701 to the Main army in Novgorod & Pskov. Regiment # 9 was sent in 1701 to Taganrog (near Azov) & in 1701-02 was called Reitar, not Dragoon.
·        Juveline regiment was created as a cadet school. In 1701-02 it was in Arkhangelsk, then disbanded, troops added to other regiments
Below are details about the Recruitment in Russian (number of noblemen by regions)
Сводные данные о разборе драгун в Золотой Палате, между 27 августа и 5 сентября 1701
Ист: Волынский Н.П. Ук. соч. Кн. 3, Приложение XXVII, № 1, с. 119-135 [ниже приведены только итоговые листы со сводными данными]

пятница, 4 февраля 2011 г.

Smolensk Szhlachta in Narva campaign 1700.

Smolensk coat of arms
(Титулярник, 1672)
Smolenskaia Szhlachta was a common name of the Smolensk voevodstvo’s nobles & gentry who swore to Tzar in 1654 after Smolensk’s capture. They saved the most of their old rights & privileges. Among them was military service in an independent Corps with their own elected commanders (Polkovnik, Rotmistr, Poruchik & Khorunziy). This Corps was called Polk (regiment) Smolenskoy Schliahty. In 1700 in consisted of 7 coys, five from Smolensk, one (6th) from Belaya (Белая) & one (7th) from Roslavl (Рославль). The Roll for 1700 campaign numbered 898 men, 170 of them had privileges of Moscow nobles (ranks of stolnik, striapchiy, moskovskiy dvorianin, zyletc). The Polk arrived to Narva on Oct 14 (old style). It’s real strength is unknown. Sheremetev’s Campaign Journal 1701-05 mentioned the Roll of Smolensk Szhlachta of 1700 with 914 men.
The Polk was converted in 1708 into Roslavskiy Shkvadron (Roslavl Squadron).
Important note: Polk of Smolensk Shlachta was not the only troop/corps raised from Smolensk landlords. Gentry of Russian origin served as reitars & “gruntoviye kozaky” – as dragoons. Both were independent polks/corps. They were converted into Ryazan Dragoons in 1705.
Сводные данные по Разборному списку Смоленской шляхты и о высылке их на службу в Великий Новгород, 1700
Source: Разборный список Смоленской шляхте и рейтарам и о высылке их Великого государя на службу. 1700 г.// Смоленская шляхта т. 2: Списки шляхты, хранящиеся в РГАДА. М. 2006. (Со ссылкой на: РГАДА, ф 145, оп. 1, 1700 г., столбец 13)
Regimental commander: GM Bogdan Korsak
Coy
Rotmistr
Potutchik
Khorunziy
Strength
1
Shvykovskiy, Fedor
(Швыйковский Федор, стольник и генеральный поручик)
Lyarskoy, Ivan
(Лярской Иван, стольник)
Drutskoy-Sokolinskiy, Konstantin
(Друцкой-Соколинский Константин, князь, стольник)
138
2
Drutskoy-Sokolinskiy, Mikhail
(Друцкой-Соколинский Михаил, князь, стольник)
Azancheev, Alexander
(Азанчеев Александр, стольник)
Azancheev, Ivan
(Азанчеев Иван, стольник)
121
3
Kremnevskiy, Ivan
(Кременевской Иван, стольник)
Denisovich, Bogdan
(Денисович Богдан, стольник)
Denisovich, Ivan
(Денисович Иван, стольник)
130
4
Kakhovskoy, Dmitriy
(Каховской, Дмитрий, стольник)
nd
Engilyart, Andrey
(Ангилярт, Андрей, стольник)
99
5
nd
Shipnevskoy, Boguslav
(Шипневской, Богуслав, стольник)
Engilyart, Ivan
(Ингилярт, Иван, стольник)
140
6
Lykoshin, Ivan
(Лыкошин, Иван, стольник)
Voevotskoy, Ilya
(Воевоцкой, Илья, стольник)
Baratynskiy, Pavel
(Баратынский, Павел, стольник)
158
7
Drutskoy-Sokolinskiy, Samuil
(Друцкой-Соколинский Самойло, князь, стольник)
Domashev, Vasiliy
(Домашнев, Василий)
Rykov, Prokofiy
(Рыков, Прокофий)
111