воскресенье, 29 января 2012 г.

Кротов П.А. Численность русской кавалерии в Полтавской битве (на правах рецензии)


Данный материал – что-то вроде рецензии на статью П.А. Кротова, посвященную организации и численности русской кавалерии в Полтавском сражении. Исходные данные обсуждаемой статьи: Кротов П.А. Численность русской кавалерии в Полтавской битве. // Проблемы истории России и стран Северной Европы от средних веков до наших дней (К 90-летию со дня рождения И.П. Шаскольского). СПб., 2009. С. 73-79. Саму статью можно найти здесь. Данная статья по сути есть продолжение заочной дискуссии П.А. Кротова и В.А. Молтусова, которая нашла свое отражение в их монографиях, вышедших в том же юбилейном 2009 г. Я тоже занимался вопросом организации и численности русской кавалерии при Полтаве, и ниже мои мысли на этот счет.
Собственно, в статье Кротова обсуждаются 2 основных тезиса:
1. о составе и численности русской кавалерии в Полтавском сражении
2. о составе и численности русской кавалерии в бою у редутов.

вторник, 24 января 2012 г.

Russian landed gentry levy cavalrymen, 1641

A drawing of Russian noble from Russian embassy of D. Myshetskiy sent in 1641 to Georgia/Imeretia. Drawing made by Castelli, an Italian who was in Georgia that time.

Недавно нашел у себя в архиве вот такой вот рисунок поместного, бывшего в 1641 в Грузии в составе посольства Д.И. Мышецкого. Автор рисунка итальянец Кастелли.

пятница, 20 января 2012 г.

Capitulation of the Bavarian garrison of Rothenberg, 21 Sept 1703

Eigentliche Vorstellung Der Vestung Rothenbergs
by A.J. Felsecker (1717?)
CLICK TO ENLARGE

First time Rothenberg was besieged during the Spanish Succession war on 8 May of 1703. That time Bavarian garrison consisted only of a coy of captain Preysing from P.S. de Berquere militia battalion. Bavarians under Maffei tried to reinforce the garrison but were beaten of by Janus d’Eberstedt on 23 May at Krottensee. Second attempt on 6 June was successful. Bavarians forced Janus to raise the siege & strengthened the garrison. But Austrians under General-Wachtmeister Aufsess (ab. 3,000) again besieged Rothenberg on June 17, 1703. They put batteries on a hill opposite the castle & easy forced Bavarians to capitulate. Garrison capitulated on Sept. 19, but they left the castle on Sept. 21.
Bavarian garrison, June-September 1703
Colonel count Sanbonifatio
- Free-coy Sanbonifatio (counts Sanbonifatio had a privilege to maintain own free-coy)
- battalion of Spielberg Foot (5 coys)
- Preysing’s coy of P.S. de Berquere militia battalion
Artillery consisted of 4 cannons, 1 mortar & a howitzer. 

четверг, 19 января 2012 г.

Polish artillery in 1654


Polish 12-pdr brass cannon made in 1642
Taken by Swedes in 1702 at Klissow
(Drawing by J.P. Thelott)

According to Tadeusz Nowak’s data (Nowak T. Polska artyleria koronna przed wojna 1655 - 1660 i podczas jej trwania //Wojna polsko-szwedzka 1655-1660. Warszawa, 1973.) Polish artillery (siege & field) in 1654 consisted of 245 brass & 118 metal cannons & 9 mortars. All of them were situated in 6 locations/arsenals. This number don’t include fortress artillery.    
List of Polish cannons in 1654
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вторник, 17 января 2012 г.

Regimental artillery of new-raised Russian foot regiments in 1700 (Narva campaign)


16 new-raised foot regiments (see details here) had 2 3-pdr cannons per regiment during the campaign of 1700. They had caliber of 76 mm, length 140 cm, weight ab. 330 kg. 200 cannons of this pattern were ordered in February-May of 1699, but a fire at Moscow Gunnery in July 1699 interrupted the production. By the March 1700 only 80 cannons were made. They had the same technical parameters but could differ by decorations (there are 4 different drawings made by J.P. Thelott). 64 of them were sent in August 1700 to Narva, 32 with new-raised foot regiments (2 per regiment) & 32 as a part of Naryad (Artillery Corps). All of them were captured by Swedes. The rest 3-pdr cannons were given in September 1700 to the foot regiments raised by Repnin.
3-pdr regimental brass cannon made in 1699 by M. Osipov
Taken by Swedes at Narva in 1700
3-фунтовое медное орудие, отлитое в 1699 М. Осиповым
Захвачено шведами под Нарвой в 1700 г.
(Drawing by J.P. Thelott)
Pay attention on the "trophy stamp" - a cartouch with inscription “Med Guds hielps af Kon. Carl d’XII tagit med Narven d 20 Nov 1700” (By the Grace of God taken by Carl XII at Narva on Nov 20, 1700) above the eagle. (read more about it)

Полковая артиллерия новоприборных полков в Нарвском походе 1700 г.
При подготовке к войне со Швецией под влиянием европейского опыта было принято решение о переходе в полковой артиллерии с 2-фунтовых орудий на 3-х фунтовые. В феврале 1699 на Московском пушечном дворе был размещен заказ на изготовление 100 медных полковых 3-фунтовых пищалей с длиной ствола в 2 аршина и весом около 20 пудов (калибр 76 мм, длина около 140 см, вес около 330 кг). Чуть позже в том же 1699 были заказаны еще 100 таких же орудий со сроком изготовления в течение года. Однако эти заказы не были полностью выполнены в срок из-за пожара 26-27 июля 1699, уничтожившего большую часть производства. К марту 1700 на Пушечном дворе в Москве находилось 80 3-фунтовых орудий, отлитых в 1699 году. Все орудия имели одинаковые характеристики, но незначительно отличались декором (имеется 4 различных рисунка орудий из этой партии), что связано с тем, что их отливали разные мастера: Мартемьян Осипов, Логин Жихарев, Семен Федоров, Петр Дубасов.

воскресенье, 15 января 2012 г.

Saxon troops sent to Wien (Vienna), end of July 1683

Saxony sent in the end of July 1683 a Corps of 10,454 men to support Austrians. It consisted of 3,194 cavalry (Trabanten, 4 Cuirassier and a Dragoon regiments) & 7,073 infantry (13 battalions: 6 regiments of 2 & converged grenadier battalion). Artillery was of 16 cannons with 187 men.
a. Musketier des Leibregiments zu Fuss, 1683
b. Musketier des v. Uetterodt zu Fuss, 1683
c. Musketier eines Regiments zu Fuss, 1695
(from: Friedrich W. Die Uniformen der Kurfürstlich Sächsischen Armee 1683-1763).
CLICK TO ENLARGE


 Liste des Kursachsischen Korps (end of July 1683)
CLICK TO ENLARGE

пятница, 6 января 2012 г.

Russian Foot colors of 1700 pattern


Finial of 1700 pattern colours
Навершие знамен обр 1700 г.
(Armemuseum, Stockholm)

I realized that I haven’t yet described the foot colours of 1700. For 16 new-raised foot regiments in 1700 was issued a new pattern of colours. It was different from the colours used before in Russian New model troops & Streltzy (see my posts marked Colours & standards). Each regiment received 2 sets of colours: parade & everyday. Parade colours were never used in the field, so I focus on everyday set. It consisted of 12 colours, one per company. The colour of the 1st coy was regimental. It was white with black or brown double-headed eagle under 3 crowns. The rest colours were colored & decorated with palm branches, arm with sword coming out of a cloud, St. Andrew’s cross. The distribution of field colors per regiments is unknown.
Russian sources mentions 15 field colors (there were 16 regiments raised): 2 red, 2 sand, 2 grey, 3 blue, yellow, light-violet, light-green, orange, green, grey-blue. No details about colors of clouds & palm branches.
St. Andrew's Cross, Type 1
Крест Св. Андрея, Тип 1
(Armemuseum, Stockholm)
Most of the 1700 pattern colours were captured by Swedes at Narva. Thanks to that we have their descriptions from Swedish sources. Many of them survived till our days & now are available in Trophy Collection of the Armeemuseum, Stockholm. First time trophied colours were described in “True relation” (Sannfärdig berättelse om the ryska fångars ankomst till Stockholm, theras vphämtande, och huru the äro fördehlte, och hållas vthi sin arrest. Jämpte en richtig förtekning uppå the wid Narva erhållna trophéer, stycken, fahnor och standarer. Stockholm, 1701) in May 1701. Later it was repeated in Petrelli’s work (Petrelli T.J. Narvatrofeer. Uppsala-Stockholm, 1907. рр. 14-16). There are 105 company colours of 1700 pattern of 14 variants in the Relation. They differ by field, clouds & palm branches colors. 26 colours were damaged. Sperling in his Dagbok (Sperling, P. Dagbok 1700–1710. Karolinska Krigares Dagbцcker. V. 3. Lund. 1907, p. 22-23) described 94 company colours of 1700 pattern. He mentioned field color & color of palm branches. Sperling also attributed the colours by regiments. But his attribution is wrong in many cases. Belavenetc described 140 company colours of 1700 pattern from Trophy Collection. He paid attention that the colours had 2 types of St. Andrew cross under palm branches. 75 colours had painted St. Andrew Cross. The rest had a medallion with the cross.
St. Andrew's Cross, Type 2
Крест Св. Андрея, Тип 2
(Armemuseum, Stockholm)
The table below presents a comparison of the available descriptions of 1700 company colours.
#
Sperling
Relation/Petrelli
Russian doc
Type of the cross*
1
Red, 11 (Wachthof)**
Red with blue cloud & green branches, 10
Red
2
2
Dark-green, 9 (Defson)
Green with blue cloud & pale branches, ***
green
1